great Manu says to the Rishis (who begged him to discourse
upon the duties of man, etc., for their benefit), "After
discoursing on the duties of the four Classes and the
four Orders, we shall now describe Raaja Dharma
or the duties and qualifications, etc., or Rulers, in
other words, we shall discuss as to who is fit to be
a king, how he is to be selected, and how he can attain
the highest bliss -salvation. Let a Kshatriya (ruler),
whose knowledge, culture and piety are as perfect as
those of a Brahman, govern the country with perfect
justice" MANU 7:A1, 2 in the following way:-
teaches), "Let there be for the benefit of the rulers
and the ruled three Assemblies -
. Let each discuss and decide subjects that concern
it, and adorn all men with knowledge, culture, righteousness,
independence, and wealth, and thereby make them happy."
RIG VEDA 3:36, 6.
the three Assemblies, Military Councils, and the Army
hamoniously work together to carry on the government
of a country." ATHARVA VEDA 15:2, 9, 2.
king should address the Assembly thus:- Let the leader
of the Assembly abide by the just laws passed by the
Assembly, and let other members do the same." ATHARVA
VEDA 19:7, 55, 6.
means that no single individual should be invested with
absolute power. The king, who is the president of the
Assembly, and the Assembly itself should be inter-dependent
on each other. Both should be controlled by the people,
who in their turn should be governed by the Assembly.
the system be not followed and the king be independent
of the people and have absolute power, "He would impoverish
the people, - being despotic and hence arrogant - and
oppress them, aye, even eat them up, just as a tiger
or any other carnivorous animal pounces upon a robust
animal and eats it up. A despotic ruler does not let
any one else grow in power, robs the rich, usurps their
property by unjust punishment, and accomplishes his
selfish end. One man should, therefore, never be given
despotic power." SHATPATHA BRAAHMAN 12:2, 3, 7, 8.
men! Let that man alone among you be made a king - the
President of the Assembly - who is very powerful conqueror
of foes, is never beaten by them, has the capacity to
become the paramount sovereign, is most enlightened,
is worthy of being made a President, who posesses most
noble qualities, accomplishments, character and disposition;
is thoroughly worthy of the homage, trust and respect
of all." ATHARVA VEDA 1: 6, 10, 98.
ye learned men ! Proclaim that man with one voice your
king - the President and Head of the State - who is
just, impartial, well-educated, cultured and friend
of all. In this way alone shall ye attain universal
sovereignity, be greater than all, manage the affairs
of the State, obtain political eminence, acquire wealth,
and rid the world of its enemies." YAJUR VEDA 9;40.
teaches in the Veda, "Rulers! Your implements of warfare,
(such as, guns, rifles, bows, arrows, etc.) and war-materials
(such as gun-powder) be worthy of praise, strong and
durable to repel and conquer your enemies. Let your
army be a glorious one, so that you may always be victorious.
But the aforesaid things shall not be attainable to
the contemptible, the despicable, and unjust." RIG VEDA
1: 39, 2.
In other words, it is only as long as men remain honourable,
just and virtuous that they are politically great. When
they become wicked and unjust, they are absolutely ruined.
a nation, therefore, elect the most learned men, as
members of the Educational Assembly, the most devout
men, as members of the Religious Assembly and men of
the most praiseworthy character, as members of the Legislative
Assembly; and let that great man in it, who possess
most excellent qualities, is highly accomplished, and
bears most honourable character, he made the Head or
President of the Political Assembly.
the three Assemblies harmoniously work together, and
make good laws, and let all abide by those laws. Let
them all be of one mind in affairs that promote the
happiness of all. All men should subordinate themselves
to the laws that are calculated to promote general well-being;
they should be free inn matters relating to individual
OF THE HEAD OF THE STATE
"He should be as powerful as electricity: as dear to
his people's hearts as their very breath, able to read
the inmost thoughts of others, and just in his dealings
as a Judge. He should enlighten people's mind by the
spread of knowledge, justice, and righteousness, and
dispel ignorance and injustice as the sun illuminates
the world. He should be like one who consumes wickedness
like fire, keeps the wicked and the criminal under control
like a jailer, gladdens the hearts of the good like
the moon; makes the country rich and prosperous, as
a treasurer keeps his treasury full; is powerful and
majestic like the sun, keeps the people in order and
awe; and on whom no one in the whole world dares to
look with a stern eye. He alone is then fit to be the
Head of the State who is like fire, air, the sun, the
moon, a judge, a treasurer, a goaler in keeping the
wicked under control, and like electricity in power."
MANU 7: 4, 6, 7.
"The Law alone is the real king, the dispenser of justice,
the disciplinarian. The Law is considered as the surety
for the four Classes and Orders to discharge properly
their respective duties. The Law alone is the true Governor
that maintains order among the people. The Law alone
their Protector. The Law keeps awake whilst all the
people are fast asleep. The wise, therefore, look upon
the Law alone as Dharma or Right. When rightly administered
the Law makes all men happy but when administered wrongly,
i.e., without due regard to the requirement of justice,
it ruins the king. All the four Classes would become
corrupt, all order would come to an end, there would
be nothing but chaos and corruption if the Law were
not properly enforced. Where the Law - which is likened
unto a fear-inspiring man, black in colour and with
red eyes - striking fear into the hearts of the people
(evil) and preventing them form committing crimes, rules
supreme, there the people never go astray, and consequently
live in happiness if it be administered by a just and
alone is considered a fit person to administer the Law
by the wise, who invariably speaks the truth, is thoughtful,
highly intellectual and very clever in the attainment
of virtue, wealth and righteous desires. The Law rightly
administered by the king greatly promotes the practice
of virtue, acquisition of wealth and secures the attainment
of the heart-felt desires of his people. But the same
Law destroys the king who is sensual, indolent, crafty,
malevolent, mean and low-minded.
is the power and majesty of the Law. It cannot be administered
by a man who is ignorant and unjust. It surely brings
the downfall of the king who deviates from the path
Law can never be justly administered by a man who is
destitute of learning and culture, has no wise and good
men to assist him, and is sunk in sensualism. He alone
is fit administer the Law- which is another name for
justice - who is wise, pure in heart, of truthful character,
associates with the good, conducts himself according
to the law and is assisted by the truly good and great
men in the discharge of his duties." MANU 7: 17, 19,24,
28, 30, 31.
"The four chief Offices - Commander-in -Chief of the forces,
Head of the Civil Government, Minister of Justice, and
the Supreme Head of all - the King - should be held only
by those persons who are well -versed in all the four
Vedas and the Shaastraas, are conversant with all the
sciences and philosophies, devout, and have perfect control
over their desires, passions and possess a noble character.
no man transgress that law which has been passed by
an Assembly of ten men learned and wise, or at the very
least of three such men. This Assembly must consist
of members who are well-versed in the four Vedas, keen
logicians, masters of language, and men conversant with
the science of religion, they must belong to the first
three Orders - Brahmacharya, (celibacy), Grihastha (married
life), Vaanaprastha (renunciation)
no man transgress what has been decided by even an Assembly
of three men who are scholars of the Rig Veda, the Yajur
Veda and Saama Veda respectively.
the decision of one Sanyaasi, (wise) who is fully conversant
with all four Vedaas and is superior to all the twice-born
(Dwijaas) should be considered of the highest authority.
But let no man abide by the decision of myriads of ignorant
a meeting of thousands of men cannot be designated an
Assembly, if they be destitute of such high virtues
as self-control or truthful character, be ignorant of
the Vedas and be men of no understanding like the Shoodraas.
no man abide by the law laid down by men who are altogether
ignorant, and destitute of the knowledge of the Veda,
or whosoever obeys the law propounded by ignorant fools
falls into hundreds of kinds of sin and vice. Therefore,
let not ignorant fools be ever made members of the aforesaid
three Assemblies - Political, Educational and Religious.
On the other hand let learned and devout persons only
be elected to such high offices. MANU 12: 100, 110-111.
OF MEMBERS OF THE POLITICAL ASSEMBLY
"Those men alone are fit to fill such high offices,
as of the President or a member of the Political Assembly,
who have learnt the three kinds of knowledge, of good
deeds and their practice, of elevation of mind by meditation,
and contemplation of abstruse subjects, and of that
superior wisdom that results from the first two - from
the scholars of the four Vedas, - the true system of
Government, the science of Logic, the Divine science
which consists of the knowledge of the nature, character
and attributes of God and the arts of elocution and
debate. Let all members and leaders always walk in the
keep the senses under perfect control and keep aloof
from sin. Let them always practise yoga, meditate on
God morning evening, for, he who cannot control his
mind and senses - which are subjects of the soul - can
never keep the people under control.
a man, therefore, most diligently shun (and help others
to do the same) eighteen vices - vices from which a
man once entangled into them can hardly escape - ten
of which proceed from love of pleasure and eight from
kind addicted to vices arising from the love of pleasure
loses his kingdom, wealth and power and even his character.
Whilst one who is addicted to vices arising from anger
may even lose his life. Ten vices proceeding from love
of pleasure are:-
1. Hunting. 2. Gaming - playing with dices, gambling,
etc. 3. Sleeping by day. 4. Gossiping or talking of
sensual subjects. 5. Excess with women. 6. Use of intoxicants
such as alcohol, opium, canabis indica and its products,
etc. 7. Saying unkind or hard words. 8. Useless wandering
about from place to place.
vices that proceed from anger are:-
1. Tale-bearing 2. Violence, such as outraging another
man's wife. 3. Malevolence. 4. Envy, i.e., mortification
excited by the sight of another person's superiority
or success. 5. Detraction from one's character. 6. Expenditure
of money, etc., for sinful purposes. 7. Saying unkind
or hard words. 8. Infliction of punishment without any
him assiduously shun self-love that all wise men hold
to be the root of all evils that are born of the love
of pleasure and anger, it is through the love of self
that a man contracts all these vices.
use of intoxicants, gaming, excess with women, and hunting
- these four are the most pernicious vices that arise
from the love of pleasure.
of punishment without offence, the use of slanderous
language, the expenditure of money for unrighteous purposes
- these three are the great vices born of anger that
bring extreme suffering on the possessor thereof.
of these seven vices proceeding from the love of pleasure
and anger the one preceding is worse than the one following.
In other words, the use of slanderous language worse
than the abuse of money, punishing the innocent worse
than the use slanderous language. Hunting is worse than
punishing the innocent, excess with women worse than
hunting, and use of intoxicants worse still.
is certain that it is better to die than to be addicted
to vices, since the longer a wicked man lives, the more
sins he will commit and consequently lower and lower
will he sink and thereby the more will he suffer. Whilst
he who is free from vices enjoys happiness even if he
it behoves all men, especially the king, to keep aloof
form hunting, drinking, and other vices, and, instead,
to develop a good character and noble disposition, and
to devote themselves to the practice of virtuous deeds.
MANU 7: 43-53.
QUALIFICATIONS OF MINISTERS AND MEMBERS OF ASSEMBLIES
"Let a king appoint seven or eight good, righteous and
clever ministers who are natives of the country, are
thoroughly conversant with the Vedaas and the Shaatraas,
are very brave and courageous, whose judgement seldom
errs, who come from a good family and are well-tried
an act easy in itself becomes difficult to be accomplished
by a man when single-handed. How much more so then,
is the great work of the government of a country by
a man single-handed. It is, therefore, a most dangerous
thing to make one man a despotic ruler, or entrust a
single man with sole management of the affairs of the
the Head of State, then, constantly consult with his
clever with his clever and earned ministers on the affairs
of the State, such as:- 1. Peace. 2. War 3. Defense
- quietly protecting his own country against a foreign
attack and waiting for an opportunity. 4. Offence -
attacking an enemy when he finds himself strong enough
to do. 5. Proper management of the internal affairs
of the State, the exchequer and the Army. 6. Pacification
of the newly
countries by freeing them from all kinds of disturbance.
Let him daily reflect on the six subjects.
ascertained the individual opinion of each of his ministers
and other members of the Assembly, let him abide by
the decision of the majority and do what is beneficial
for him as well for others.
him likewise appoint other ministers who are men of
great integrity, highly intellectual, of resolute minds,
of great organizing power and of vast experience.
him appoint good, energetic, strong, and clever officers,
as many as he requires, for the due transaction of the
business of the State. Under them let brave, courageous
strong men of great integrity and of noble lineage fill
position involving great responsibility and risk, whilst
let timid and faint-hearted men be employed for the
administration of internal affairs.
him also appoint an Ambassador who comes from a good
family, is very clever, perfectly honest, able to read
the inmost thoughts of others and to foretell future,
developments and events by observing the expression
of faces and other significant signs and acts, and is
well-versed in all the Shaastraas - branches of knowledge.
alone is fit person to be appointed an Ambassador who
is very much devoted to politics, loves his country
with all his heart, is of irreproachable character,
pure in heart, highly intelligent and endowed with an
excellent memory, who can adapt himself to the manners
and customs of different countries and different times,
is good looking, fearless and a master of elocution."
MANU 7: 54-57, 60-62, 64.
OF MINISTERS AND OTHER HIGH OFFICIALS
"The power to enforce the law should be vested in a
minister who should see that the law is administered
justly, treasury and other affairs of the State should
be under the control of the king, peace and war under
that of the Ambassador, and everything under the control
It is the Ambassador alone who can make peace between
enemies, or war between friends. He should so strive
as to divide enemies united against his country.
having learnt the designs of his enemy let a king -
the President of the Assembly (as well as members of
the Assembly, Ambassadors and others) - endeavour to
guard himself against al danger from him.
a thickly wooded country, where the soil is rich, let
him build himself a town surrounded by a fortress of
earth, or one protected by water, or one surrounded
by a thick wood on all sides, or a fortress of armed
men, or one surrounded by a mountain.
him build a wall round the city, because one brave,
well-armed soldier placed inside it is a match for a
hundred, and a hundred for thousands. It is therefore,
extremely necessary to build a fort. Let the for t be
well-supplied with arms and ammunition, with various
kinds of grain and other food stuffs, with conveyances
and beasts of burden, etc., with teachers and preachers,
artisans, various kinds of machines, with grass and
grain, etc., for animals, and with water, etc. In the
centre of the town let him build for himself a Government
house, well- protected from wind, etc., suited to all
provided parks and gardens round it, and well-supplied
with water. It should be big for all the state functions.
done so far, that is, having completed his studies in
the order of Brahmacharya and settled the affairs of
the State, let him choose a consort of Kshatriya Class,
born of a high family, endowed with beauty and other
excellent qualities, dearest to his heart, blessed with
charming manners, etc., and equal to him in knowledge,
acquisitions, accomplishments and of like temperament.
Let him take one wife and one only, and consider all
other women as unapproachable, therefore let him not
even look at another woman (with the eye of lust).
him retain a chaplain and a spiritual teacher to perform
Homa and Yajnas suitable for different season sand other
religious duties for him in the palace, and let him
always devote himself to the business of the State.
To devote himself day and night to the affairs of the
State without allowing anything to go out of order is
the highest duty of a king, aye, this is his worship,
this is his communion." MANU 7: 65, 66,68, 70, 74-78.
"Let the king collect his revenue through honorable,
trustworthy and accomplished men possessed of excellent
character. Let him, who is the President of the Assembly,
his ministers and other officials, and the Assembly
observe the eternal principles taught by the Vedas,
and let them act like fathers to the people.
the Assembly appoint officials of various kinds whose
sole duty it should be to see that the State officials
in all departments
their duties faithfully according to the regulations.
Leth them, who discharge their duties satisfactorily,
be honored, whilst those who do not, be punished properly.
order to disseminate the knowledge of the Veda which
is truly called the imperishable treasure of the kings,
let the king and the Assembly show due respect to students,
who return from their seminaries after having studied
the Vedaas and Shaatraas in the Order of Brahmacharya
as well as their teachers. This helps forward the spread
of education and the progress of a country.
a king, devoted to the warfare of his people, be defied
by an enemy of equal, greater, or lessstrength, let
him remember the duty of Kshatriya and never shrink
from going to battle. Let him fight with such skill
as may ensure his victory.
kings who, with the object of defeating their enemies,
fight fearlessly to their utmost and never turn away
from the field of battle shall obtain happiness. They
must never turn their backs upon the field of battle,
but it is sometime necessary to hide away from the enemy
in order to obtain victory over him. Let them employ
all kinds of tactics to ensure their success in battle,
but let them not perish foolishly like a tiger who,
when his temper is rouse, exposes himself foolishly
to the fire and is thereby killed.
the field of battle let soldiers bear in mind the duty
of men of honor, and, therefore, never strike a man
who is standing near a field of battle - a non-combatant
- nor one who is a eunuch, nor one who with folded palms
begs for peace, nor one whose hair is dishevelled or
scattered (over his eyes), nor one who is sitting at
ease, nor one who says 'I am at your mercy', nor one
who is asleep, nor one who is unconscious or in a fit,
nor one who is disarmed, nor one who is naked, nor one
who is a mere spectator, nor one who is only a camp-follower,
nor one who is in agony of pain
his wounds, nor one who is an invalid, nor one who is
seriously wounded, nor one who is terrified, nor one
who is running away (from the field of battle).
should make them prisoners and provide them with food,
drink and other necessaries of life. The wounded should
be medically attended to. They should never be teased
or made to suffer in any way. They should be employed
in the kind of work that suits their station, etc. the
king should especially see that no one strikes a woman,
a child, and old man, a wounded man and one who is diseased
or afflicted with sorrow.
him protect and bring up their children as if they were
his own daughters or sisters. Nor should he ever look
upon them with the eye of lust. After the country has
settled down, let him send all those, from whom he does
not fear a fresh revolt, away to their own homes; but
let him keep in prison all others who, he fears, may
possibly raise the standard of revolt.
soldier, who cowardly turns his back on a field of battle
and is slain (by an enemy), is thus rightly punished
for his disloyalty to his master who shall take unto
himself all the honor due to the deceased on account
of his past good conduct which begets happiness in this
world and in the next. The soldier, who is killed whilst
running away from the field of battle, shall never obtain
happiness. All his good work is nullified by this act
of cowardice. He alone wins laurels who fights faithfully.
the king never violate this law that carriages, horses,
elephants, tents, umbrellas, grain, silver and gold,
cattle such as cows, women, cases of oil and butter,
and various other articles are lawful
of the soldier or of the officer who takes them in war.
The captors should give the sixteenth part of their
loot to the king, and so should the latter distribute
among the whole army the sixteenth part of what was
taken by them collectively." MANU 7: 80-82, 87, 89,
the wife and children have the share of the man who
is killed in war. The wife and children of that man
should be well look after till the children are grown
up when the king should offer them suitable state appointments.
no one, who is desirous of augmenting the prosperity
of his State and of gaining fame, victory, and happiness,
transgress this law.
the king and the Assembly have not let them strive hard
to get, what they preserved let them augment, and let
them spend the augmented wealth in the diffusion of
the knowledge of the Vedaas, the spread of the principles
of true religion, in helping scholars and preachers
of the Vedic religion, and bringing up orphans. Having
learnt the fourfold object of activity let him shun
sloth and live an active life.
him obtain what he has not got b the observance of the
law, and what he has acquired let him protect with diligent
attention, what he has protected let him augment by
investing profitably, and let him always spend his augmented
wealth in the furtherance of the aforesaid cause.
him on all occasions act without guile and never without
sincerity, but, keeping himself well on his guard let
him discover and ward off the evil designs of his enemy.
him ponder over the acquisition of wealth like a heron
that pretends to be as if in meditative attitude just
before catching fish. Having obtained the necessary
material and augmented his power, let him put forth
his strength like a lion to vanquish his foe; like a
tiger let him stealthily creep towards his enemy and
catch him. When a powerful enemy has come close by,
let him run away form him like a hare and then over
take him by strategem.
not his foe discover his weak points but the vulnerable
points of his foe let him himself well discern. Let
him hide his vulnerable points form his enemy just as
a tortoise draws in his limbs and keeps them concealed
such a victorious sovereign reduce all dacoits, robbers
and the like to submission by conciliating them, by
giving them presents or by turning them against each
other. If he fails to restrain then by those means let
him do so by infliction heavy punishment on them.
a farmer separates the husk from the corn without injuring
the latter, so should a king exterminate dacoits and
burglars, and thus protect his people.
king, who, through neglect of duty and lack of understanding
oppresses his people, soon loses his kingdom and perishes
with his family before his time. MANU 7: 99, 101, 104-107,
as living beings lose their lives through the failure
of their bodily strength, so do kings as well as their
families lose their power, and even their lives by oppressing
in order to conduct the government properly let the
king and the assembly so strive as to fully accomplish
this object. The king who is always devoted to the welfare
of his people obtains perpetual happiness.
him, therefore, have an administrative office in the
midst of two, three, five and a hundred villages, wherein
he should keep the required number of officials to carry
on government business. Let him appoint an official
at the head of one village, a second one over ten such
villages, a third one over twenty, a fourth one over
one hundred villages, and a fifth one over a thousand
the Lord (i.e., the administrator) of one town daily
apprise the Lord of Ten Towns privately of all
crimes committed within his jurisdiction and the Lord
of Ten submit his report to the Lord of Twenty.
Let the Lord of Twenty notify all such matters
to the Lord of one hundredevery day and the Lord
of one Hundred, to the Lord of one Thousand,
in other words, five Lords of Twenty, to a Lord of
one Hundred, ten Lords of a Hundred, to a Lord of Ten
thousand, and the Lord of Ten Thousand to
an assembly which governs the affairs of a hundred thousand
townships and all such Assemblies, to the Supreme International
Assembly representing the whole world.
every ten thousand villages let him appoint two presiding
officials, one of whom should preside over the Assembly,
In other words, the present system of having a Surveyor
(Patwari) in one village, a branch Police Station for
every ten villages and Head Police Station over two branch
stations, a Tahsil over the five such Police Stations,
a district over ten such Tahsils, and so on, has been
borrowed from our ancient system of Government as taught
tour all over the country and diligently inspect the
work and conduct of all the magistrates and other officials.
the purpose of holding the meetings of town councils
let him erect a Town Hall in every big town. It should
be lofty, capacious, and beautiful like the moon, wherein
let the members of the town council, who should be men
of vast learning and experience, deliberate over the
affairs of their town, and make such laws as will promote
the welfare of the people and advance the cause of education
the inspecting governor have detectives under
him - who should come from Kshatriya (protectors)
as well as other Classes - and through them let him
secretly know perfectly the conduct - good or bad -
of the Government servants as well as that of the people.
Let him punish those who do not faithfully discharge
their duties and honor those who conduct is praiseworthy.
the king appoint such men guardians of his people as
are virtuous, well-experienced, learned and of good
lineage; under such learned officials let him also place
men who are very wicked* as burglars and robbers, i.e.,
who live by seizing what belongs to others. It will
help to keep those men form the pursuit of their wicked
ways, as well as, to protect the people properly.
the king punish properly the magistrate who accepts
bribe ether from the plaintiff or the defendant in a
case and, therefore,
* On the principle that the best
keeper is an old poacher. -Tr.
an just decision, confiscate all his possessions, and
banish him to a place form which he can never return.
Were that man to go unpunished, it would encourage other
officials to commit similar wicked crimes, whilst the
infliction of punishment would serve to check them.
But let those officials be paid handsomely for their
services - either by gifts of land or in lump sums of
money, paid annually or monthly - enough to keep them
in comfort and even to make them rich.
an old official in consideration of his services be
granted a pension equal to half his pay. This pension
must last only so long as he lives, not after. But let
his children be properly honored or given Government
appointments according to their qualifications. Let
his wife and children* be given an allowance by the
State enough for their subsistence which should be stopped
if they turn wicked. Let the king constantly follow
"Let the king in conjunction with the Assembly, after
full consideration, so levy taxes in his dominions as
to ensure the happiness of both the rulers and the ruled.
Let the king draw an annual revenue from his people
little by little just as the leech, the suckling calf
and the bee take their food** little by little. Let
him not, through extreme covetousness, destroy the very
roots of his own and others, happiness, since
*Till they are able to earn their
** i.e., the blood, the milk and
the honey respectively. -Tr.
who cuts off the roots of happiness and temporal prosperity,
brings nothing but misery on himself as well as on others.
king who can be both gently and stern as occasion demands
is highly honored if he be gentle to the good and stern
towards the wicked.
thus arranged the affairs of the State, let him devote
himself to the protection and welfare of his people
with diligent attention. Know that king as well as his
ministers to be dead, not alive, the lives and property
of those subjects are violently taken away by ruffians
whilst they lament and cry aloud for help. Great shall
be his suffering. Promotion of happiness of their subjects,
therefore, is the highest duty of kings. The king who
discharges this duty faithfully, levies taxes and governs
the country with the help of the Assembly* enjoys happiness,
but he who does otherwise is afflicted with misery and
suffering." MANU 7: 128, 129,139, 140,141-144.
the king rise in the last watch of the night, have a
wash, meditate on God with his whole attention, perform
Homa, pay his respects to the devoutly learned
men, take his meal and enter the audience chamber. Let
him standing there show respect to the people present.
Having dismissed them, let him take counsel with his
Prime Minister on state affairs. Thereafter let him
go out for a walk or a ride, seek the top of a mountain
wilderness, where there is not even the tiniest tree
(to hide a person), or a sequestered house and discuss
(state affairs) with him in all sincerity.
* As described in Manu in the
7th Chapter. -Tr.
king, whose profound thoughts other men even though
combined cannot unravel, in other words, whose thought
are deep, pure, centered on public good, and hidden
shall rule the whole earth, even though they be poor.
Let him never do even a single thing without the approval
of the Assembly." MANU 7: 145 - 148.
PEACE AND WAR - MILITARY.
"The king and other persons in authority should keep
it in view that it is their duty to adopt after due
deliberation one of the following six measures as occasion
peace with the enemy.
war against wicked enemies.
victory b dividing his forces.
the protection of or alliance with powerful king when
a ruler is weak.
the king thoroughly acquaint himself with the twofold
nature of these measures:-
The two kinds of peace with the enemy are:_
contracting parties act in conjunction.
always go on doing whatever is necessary for the present
or will be required for the future.
is of two kinds:-
it is waged on account of an injury to himself.
it is waged on account of an injury to a friendly
power or an ally in season or out of season.
quiet is of two kinds - firstly, when it is done when
the king's own power is weakened through some cause,
and secondly, when he remains quiet on the advice of
divide one's force - rank and file - into two sections
in order to gain victory is called the Division of the
the protection of or alliance with a powerful ruler
or the advice of a great man in self defense when threatened
by an enemy or when on the offensive is the twofold
Protection or Alliance.
a king ascertains that by going to war at the present
time he will suffer, whilst by waiting and going to
war at some future time he will certainly gain in power
and vanquish his enemy, let him , then, make peace with
him and patiently wait for that favorable opportunity.
he finds his people and the army considerable happy,
prosperous and full of spirits and himself the same,
let him then declare war against his foe.
knows his own troops to be contented, cheerful and fit
- well-fed, well-nourished and well-clothed, etc., -
and those of his enemy the reverse, let him then attack
or march against his foe.
he finds his foe much stronger than himself, let him
accomplish his object by doubling or dividing his forces.
it becomes clear to him that his enemies will soon march
against him, let him then seek speedily the protection
of or alliance with, a just and powerful king.
a king serve him who would help him in restoring order
among his people or in keeping his army under control
or his enemy in check, as he would, his teacher - temporal
and spiritual. But if he finds his protector or ally
full of evil designs, let him then fight him to fearlessly.
him never be hostile to a king who is just and virtuous.
On the other hand, let him always be on friendly terms
with him. All the aforesaid measures are to be adopted
in order to vanquish a wicked man who is in power. MANU
8: 16 -176
the king who is a true statesman, adopt such measures
that neither his allies, neutral powers, nor his foes
may grow in power or gain any great advantage over him.
Let him thoroughly deliberate over the advantages and
disadvantages of his past actions, his present and future
duties. Then let him strive to ward off evils and promote
good results. That king shall never be vanquished by
his enemies who can foresee the good and evil results
likely to follow from the measures that he would adopt
in the future, who acts according to his convictions
in the present without delay and knows his failings
in the past.
a statesman, especially the king, viz., the President
of the Assembly, so endeavor that the power of his allies,
neutral powers and foes may be kept within limits and
not otherwise. Never should he be negligent of this.
This alone is, in brief, true statesmanship." MANU 7:177-180
a king begins his march against his enemy, let him secure
the safety of his dominions, provide himself with all
that is necessary for the expedition, take the necessary
number of troops, carriages and other conveyances, weapons,
fire-arms, etc., and dispatch his spies in all quarters.
seen that all the three ways -by land, on water, and
through the air - are clear and well secured, let him
travel on land by means of cars, on foot, on horseback,
or on elephants, on water by boats, and through air
by air-ships and the like, well provide himself with
infantry, cavalry, elephants, cars. Weapons of war,
provisions and other necessary things, and proceed gradually
towards the chief city of the enemy having first given
out some reason for his march.
his conversation let him be well on his guard against,
and keep a strict watch on the movements of a man who
is inwardly a friend of the enemy and privately gives
him information, whilst outwardly keeps with him also
on friendly terms; because he who is inwardly an enemy
and outwardly a friend must be looked upon as the most
the king see that all officers learn the science and
art of war, as well as he himself and other people.
It is only those warriors who
well -experienced in the art of war that can fight well
on the field of battle. Let them be well-drilled in
the following various dispositions:-
troops in file.
troops in column.
troops in square.*
troops at the double.**
troops in Echelon.***
in skirmishing order.
him extend his troops to the flank form which he
apprehends danger like a lotus flower.
him keep his troops with their Commanders on four
sides and himself in the center. Let him place his
Generals, and Commanding Officers with their brave
troops in all the eight directions.**** Let him
turn his front towards the fighting.
must also have his flanks and rear well-guarded,
otherwise, the enemy may attack him on these positions
on all sides let him station those soldiers who
are well-trained in the art of war, firm in their
places like the pillars of a roof, virtuous, clever
in charging and sustaining a charge, fearless and
he has to fight an enemy superior to himself in
numbers, let him then arrange his troops in close
formation or quickly deploy as occasion demands.
When he has to fight his way into a city, a fort
or the ranks of his enemy, let him arrange his troops
in various forms of military array, such as marching
them in Echelon or in the form of a double-edged
that cuts both ways; let them fight as well as advance.
Before artillery or musketry fire let him order
*Just as boars run after one
another and then form one close formation.
**Just as fish swim in water.
***Pointed at the end and thicker
at the base - like a needle or a wedge.
**** N,S, E, W &NE, NW,
to crawl like snakes till they get near the guns,
shoot or capture the gunners and turn those very
guns on the enemy or shoot him with his rifles.
Or let him make old soldiers run on horses before
the guns, keep good soldiers in the middle and thus
attack the enemy. Let him shoot the enemy, scatter
his forces, or capture them by a vigorous assault.
level ground let him fight on foot, on horseback,
or in cars, on sea in men-of-war, in shallow water
on elephants, among trees and bushes with arrows,
and in sandy places with swords and shields.
his troops are engaged in fighting, let him cheer
and encourage them. At the close of a battle let
him gladden the hearts of those, who have distinguished
themselves, by making nice speeches, providing them
with everything they need, looking after their comfort,
and helping them in every other way. Let him never
engage in a fight without forming his troops into
the necessary array of battle. Let him always watch
the behavior of his troops and see whether they
discharge their duties faithfully or not.
him destroy the reservoirs, city walls, the trenches
of his enemy, alarm him by night, and adopt measures
to vanquish him.
conquered his foe let him have a treaty signed by
him. Let him, if necessary, depose him from the
throne and appoint another righteous man from the
same dynasty as king, and have a document signed
by him to the effect that he would carry out his
orders, in other-words that he would adopt a just
system of Government, serve his people and protect
them. Let him give him the aforesaid advice and
leave such men with him as would prevent any further
him honor his vanquished foe with the gifts of gems
and other valuable presents. Let him not behave
so meanly as to deprive him even of his subsistence.
Even if he were to keep him as his prisoner, let
him show him such respect as may free him from the
sorrow consequent on his defeat and make his life
happy; because the seizure of others' property in
this world gives rise to hatred, whilst the bestowal
of gifts on others is the cause of love. Let him
especially do the right thing for him at the right
moment, it is a laudable thing to give the vanquished
foe what is his heart's desire.
him never taunt him, nor laugh at him, nor poke
fun at him, not even remind him of his defeat. Instead
let him always show him respect by addressing him
as his own brother." MANU 7:184-192, 194-196, 203,
QUALIFICATIONS OF A FRIEND
"A king does not gain in power so much by the acquisition
of gold and territory as by securing a friend who
is firm, loving and far-seeing. Such a friend is
valuable no matter whether he is powerful enough
him in the attainment of his wishes or is even weak.
It is laudable for a king to secure a friend- feeble
thought he be - who knows what is right, remembers
gratefully any kindness shown to him, is cheerful
in temper, affectionate and preserving. Let him
bear in mind that it is not proper to make a foe
of a man who is eminently wise, comes from an excellent
family, and is brave, courageous, clever, liberal-minded,
grateful, firm, and patient. Whosover makes such
a man his foe is sure to suffer.
is called neutral (i..e., neither an avowed
friend nor a declared foe) who is possessed of good
qualities, knowledge, of mankind, valor, kindness
of heart, and who never discloses the secret of
the king get up early in the morning, attend to
his toilet, worship God, perform Homa himself
or have it done by his chaplain, consult with his
ministers, inspect and review his troops, cheer
their spirits, inspect stables of horses and elephants,
cow houses, etc., stores of arms and ammunition,
hospitals and the treasury, in short, inspect everything
with his own eyes and point out shortcomings.
him then go to the gymnasium, take physical exercise
and, thereafter, in the middle of the day enter
his private apartments to dine with his wife. His
food should be well-tested and be such as will promote
health, strength, energy and intellect. It should
consist of various kinds of eatables, drinks, and
sweets, juicy and fragrant dishes as well as condiments,
sauce, etc., that may keep him free from disease."
him thus promote the welfare of his people.
"Let the king take from trades-people and artisans
one-fiftieth par of their profits in silver and
gold, and one-sixth, one eight, or one-twelfth of
agricultural produce such as rice." MANU 7: 130.
he takes it in cash instead of in kind, then too
let him take it in such a way that the farmers and
others would not suffer from poverty or from want
of necessaries of life, such as food, drink, and
so on. Because when the people are rich, healthy
and have abundance of necessaries of life, the king
flourishes. Let him therefore make his subject happy
as he would his own children, and let the people
regard the king, his ministers and other officials
as their natural protectors, since it is a fact
that the farmers and other wealth producers are
the real source of kingly power. The king is their
guardian. If there were no subjects whose king would
he be? Or on the other hand if there were no king
whose subjects will they be called?
both - the rulers and the ruled - be independent
of each other in the performance of their respective
duties, but let them subordinate themselves to each
other in all those matters that require mutual harmony
and co-operation. Let not the rulers go against
the voice of the people, nor let the people and
ministers do anything against the wish of the sovereign.
political duties of kings have thus been briefly
described. Let those who want to study this subject
in detail consult the four Vedas, the Manu Smriti,
the shukraniti, the Mahaabhaarat and other books.
The method of administering justice may be studied
from the eighth and ninth chapters of Manu, but
they are also described below:-
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
"Let the king, the Court and the Judges daily decide
justly lawsuits - which are classified under eighteen
heads - according to the laws of the land and the
teachings of the Dharm Shaastraa.* If it be found
necessary to undertake fresh legislation - respect
of matters about which
*Books on the principles of
justice written by Rishis in conformity with the Vedas.-Tr.
laws are to be found in the Law books of Rishis
- let such laws be framed as will promote the welfare
of the rulers and the ruled.
are the following eighteen causes of disputes:-
- dispute arises when a man deposits an article
with another and is refused its return on demand.
by one person of a thing that is owned by another.
of some persons against a particular individual
for a criminal purpose.
to return a loan.
of inadequate payment of one's wages.
with regard to sale or purchase>
between the owner of an animal and the man who
looks after it.
burglary, and dacoity.
of conjugal duties.
- with animate as well as inanimate things.
are the eighteen causes of disputes among men.
the judge observe the eternal law of justice and
decide all these cases of disputes among men justly,
Justice, having been wounded by injustice, approaches
the Court, and no one extracts the dart, shot by
injustice, from the wound,* all the judges who constitute
the bench deserve also to be counted as wounded.
a just and virtuous man should not enter an Assembly
( or a Court of Justice), or, when he does enter
it, should invariably speak the truth. He who looks
on injustice perpetrated before his very eyes and
still remains mute, or says what is false or unjust,
is the greatest sinner.
justice is destroyed by injustice and truth by untruth
under the very nose of the Judges who simply look
on, all those who preside over that Court are as
if dead, not one of them is alive. Justice being
destroyed shall destroy the destroyer, Justice being
protected shall protect the protector. Let no man,
therefore, violate the laws of justice, lest justice,
being destroyed, destroy him.
who violates the laws of justice - justice that
gives power and prosperity, and showers happiness
like rain from heaven - is considered as lowest
of the low by the wise. Let no one, therefore, violate
the laws of justice. Justice alone, in this world,
is the true friend that accompanies a man even after
death; all other companions become extinct with
the extinction of the body. Justice never forsakes
*i.e., where the iniquitous
go unpunished and the good, unrewarded and unhonored.
justice is perpetrated in a Court of Justice (or
an assembly) by partiality being shown to one party,
the justice is divided into four equal parts. One
quarter falls to the share of the party in the cause,
one quarter of his witnesses, one quarter of all
the judges ( or members of the assembly), and one
quarter of the presiding judge (or President of
the Assembly). Where he, who deserves condemnation,
is condemned; he, who is worthy of praise, is praised;
he, who merits punishment, is punished; and he,
who deserves honor, is honored, in that court (or
assembly) the Presiding Judge and other Judges (or
the President and the members of the Assembly) are
guiltless and innocent, and the evil deed recoils
on him alone who committed it." MANU 8: 3-8, 12,
AND THEIR APTITUDES, ETC.
"Among all classes those persons alone are eligible
as witnesses who are men of character, learned,
straightforward, who know their duty properly, and
are truthful and free from covetousness. Never should
men of opposite character be considered as eligible
to bear witness.
women be witnesses for women, the twice-born for
the twice-born; Shudras for Shudras, and outcasts
the judge never deem it extremely necessary to examine
too strictly, the competence of witnesses in cases
of violence, theft, adultery, the use of abusive
language and assault, all these things being done
in the private, witnesses are not easily available
in such cases.
there be contradictory evidence let him accept as
true the evidence of the majority; if the conflicting
parties are equal in number, that of those distinguished
witnesses, that of the best among the twice-born,
viz., sages, seers and Sanyasis - altruistic teachers
kinds of evidence is admissible:-
has been seen.
has been heard by the witnesses.
A witness who speaks the truth in a court of law neither
deviates from righteousness nor deserves to be punished,
but he, who does otherwise, should be properly punished.
witness, who says anything in a court of law or
in an assembly of good men, different form what
he had seen or heard, should have his tongue cut-off.
He will consequently live in misery and pain for
the rest of his life and will have no happiness
after death in consequence of having perjured himself.
only that which a witness declares naturally be
received as evidence, but what he says on being
tutored by others be considered useless for the
purposes of evidence by a judge.
witnesses being assembled in the court, let the
judge or the counsels in the presence of the plaintiffs
and defendants address them in the following way:-
ye witnesses ! Whatever you know with regard to
the matter before us in relation to both parties
declare truthfully, for, your evidence is needed
in this case. A witness who speaks the truth shall
hereafter - in future rebirths - attain to exalted
regions and states, and enjoy happiness; he will
obtain glory in this life as well as in the next,
because the power of speech has been declared in
the Vedas as the cause of honor and disgrace. He
who invariably speaks the truth is worthy of honor,
while he who falsifies his speech is disgraced.
By truthfulness in speech is the cause of Justice
and Righteousness advanced.
behoves witnesses of all classes, therefore, to
speak the truth and nothing but the truth. Verily,
the soul itself is its own witness, the soul itself
is its own motive power. O Man! Thou art the chief
witness on behalf of others destroy not the purity
of thy own soul; in other words do thou know what
is in they own mind and to which thy speech corresponds
as truth and the reverse as untruth. The wise consider
no man greater than one whose discerning soul feels
no misgivings when he speaks.
man! If thou desirest to obtain happiness by uttering
a falsehood when thou art alone, thou are mistaken,
for the Supreme spirit that resideth in thy soul
seeth whatever thou doest - good or bad. Fear Him
O man! And live constantly a truthful life." MANU
8: 63, 72, 75, 78-81, 83, 84, 96, 91.
given through covetousness, through love, through
love, through fear, through anger, through ignorance
and through childishness, must be held false. Should
a witness give false evidence from either to these
motives, let fitting punishment be inflicted on
him. If a man gives false evidence through covetousness
he shall be fined one thousand panas* or
one pound ten pence, if through love four shillings
three pence, if through fear eight shillings four
pence, if through friendship sixteen shillings eight
pence, if through lust one pound thirteen shillings
four pence, if through anger, three pounds two shillings
six pence, if through ignorance eight shillings,
and if through childishness two shillings one pence.
may be inflicted, through property, the penis, the
back, the tongue, hands, feet, eyes, ears, noses,
and the whole body. The amount of various punishments
( with regard to fines) that have been described
above or shall be done hereafter, should vary with
the pecuniary circumstances of the offender:** with
the time and place and nature of the offence, and
with the general character and position (social
and the like) of the offender.
infliction of unjust punishment destroys reputation
and honor -past, present and future - in this world
as well as the glory to come. It causes great misery
and intense suffering even after death; let a judge,
therefore, avoid infliction of unjust punishment.
*A pana is equal to a farthing.
**For instance if he be poor,
let the fine be lighter than the ordinary rate, while
if he be rich, let it be double, triple or even quadruple.
king who inflicts punishment on such as deserve
it not, and inflicts punishment on such as deserve
it brings infamy on himself in this life and shall
sink to great depths of misery in the next. Let
the guilty, therefore, be invariably punished, and
the innocent never punished.
the first offence let the offender be punished by
gently admonition, for the second by harsh, reproof,
for the third by a fine, and for the fourth by corporeal
chastisement, such as flogging and caning, or by
imprisonment or death penalty." MANU 8:118-121,
whatever limb a man commits an offence, even that
limb shall the king remove or destroy in order to
set an example to others and prevent the repetition
of the same crime. Whosoever - be he father; tutor,
friend, wife, son, or spiritual teacher - deviates
from the path of duty, becomes liable to punishment;
in other words, when a judge sits on the seat of
justice, let him show partiality to no one and punish
an ordinary man is fined one penny, a king shall
be fined a thousand, i.e., punishment inflicted
on a king should be a thousand times heavier than
that on an ordinary man, the king's minister eight
hundred times, the official lower than him seven
and one still lower, six hundred, and so on; even
the lowest officials such as a constable, should
be punished not less than eight times as heavily
as an ordinary man would be, for if the government
officials or servants be not punished more severely
than ordinary people they would tyrannize over them.
a lion requires a severer punishment than a goat
to be well-broken, similarly do the rulers (from
the highest officials - the king - to the meanest
servant of the State), require heavier punishment
than ordinary people. If a person possesses the
power of discrimination, an yet commit theft, let
his punishment be eight-fold - i.e., eight times
the amount of the theft - if he be a Shudra; sixteen-fold,
if a Vaishaya; thirty-two fold, if a Kshatriya;
sixty-four or hundred-fold, or even a hundred and
twenty-eight-fold if he be a Brahman, i.e., the
more knowledge a man possesses and the greater his
reputation and influence, the heavier his punishment
not the king and other persons in authority, who
desire wealth and prosperity, and love justice and
righteousness, delay even for a single moment the
punishment of man who has committed atrocious violence
as dacoity, robbery, etc. A man who commits violence
is more wicked and a more grievous offender than
a slander, a thief, who suffers a man that perpetrates
such atrocities to un-
incurs public displeasure and shall soon perish.
Neither through friendship, nor even at the offer
of immense wealth should a king let a criminal,
who commits violent acts, go unpunished. On a criminal
who is a terror to the people, let the king inflict
just punishment, such a imprisonment or death.
him put a man, who is convicted of the murder of
another (but not in self-defense, etc.) to death
without a moment's hesitation, be he his tutor,
his child, his father or some other elderly person,
a Brahman, or a great scholar. He commits no sin
who passes the sentence of death on a criminal convicted
of murder and such other highly heinous crimes whether
he be executed publicly or privately. It is like
opposing anger to anger.*
excellent is the king in whose realm there is neither
a thief nor an adulterer, nor a slanderer, nor a
perpetrator of atrocious violence such as a dacoit
nor a transgressor of the law." MANU 8:334-338,
344-347, 350, 351, 386.
a wife out of her family pride desert her husband
and misconduct herself, let the king condemn her
to be devoured by dogs before all men and women.
Similarly should a husband forsake his wife and
misconduct himself with other women, let the king
cause the sinner to burnt alive publicly on a red
hot iron-bed." MANU 7: 371, 372, 406, 419, 420.
*i.e., fighting the criminal
with his own weapon. -Tr.
shall punish the king or the queen, the Lord Chief
Justice or his wife, if any one of them commits
such wicked crimes a adultery?*
A.~ The Assembly ( or the court of justice), They
should be punished even more severely than other
will the king and other high personages suffer
the Assembly (or the court of justice) to punish
A.~ What is a king but a man endowed with virtue
and favored by fortune. Were he to go unpunished,
why would others obey the law? Besides if the people
and other persons in authority and the Assembly
would deem it just and necessary to punish the king,
how can be single-handed refuse to suffer punishment?
Were king and other high personages to go free,
the king, ministers, and other men of influence
and power would simply se justice and righteousness
at naught, sink into the depths of injustice and
ruin the people as well as themselves.
ye the teaching of the Vedic text that says "Verily
the just Law alone is the true king , yes, the just
Law is the true religion." Whosoever violates it
is lowest of the low.
How can it be right to inflict such severe punishments,
since man has no power to make a limb or bring
the dead to life again?
A.~ Whosoever calls it severe punishment is ignorant
of the true principles of Right Government. The
infliction of a heavy punishment on one man prevents
others from committing similar crimes, and tends
to keep them steadfast in righteousness. Truly speaking
this so-called heavy punishment is no heavier than
the weight of a mustard seed when distributed among
all the members of a
*According to the Roman Law
which holds sway in the occident at the present time
" The king can do no wrong; and no court is competent
to try a sovereign for all the courts derive their
authority from him. The ancient Aryan Judges derived
their authority from God because they had to administer
justice according to principles sanctioned by the
Veda - Divine Law. The king, therefore, like his meanest
subject, was subject to judicial trials, Unlike modern
states the ancient state had means of legal redress
against the sovereign, now the only redress is rebellion.
In this as in so many other respects the ancient Aryan
Sage was ahead of the modern jurists. - (Rama Deva)
whilst so-called light punishment, by its failure
to check crime, is really a thousand times heavier
than the first, as it is multiplied a thousand times
by the proportional increase of crime. Now take
for an illustration a community of one thousand
persons. If every one of them be punished, say,
one pound each, the total punishment will be one
thousand pounds, whilst if one man in this community
of one thousand persons be punished, say, one hundred
pounds and should that punishment succeed in preventing
the repetition of similar crimes, the total punishment
will not be more than a hundred pounds, which is
ten times less than one thousand pounds. Thus the
seemingly light punishment in the long run turns
out to be the heavier one.
the king impose toll on all the ships and boats
passing up and down sea-canals ( or bays) and rivers
- big and small - proportionate to the length of
the country that they traverse; at sea no settled
duty can be imposed, hence let him do what best
suits the occasion. Let him in such cases make laws
that may prove beneficial both to the state and
the proprietors of ships."*
him always protect his subjects, who go to different
foreign lands by means of these ships, wherever
they are. Let them never suffer in any way.
the king daily watch the results of various measures
(adopted for the good of the state, etc.), inspect
elephants, horses and other conveyances, inquire
into his income and expenditure, inspect his mines
of precious gems, and his treasury.
king who discharges all these duties most faithfully
is freed from all taint of sin, and shall attain
t the Supreme State." MANU 8: 572, 406, 419, 480.
Is the ancient Aryan system of Government perfect
A.~ Perfect; because all other systems of Government,
that prevail at present or shall prevail, have and
will have for their basis the Aryan System of Government.
The laws that have not been declared expressly have
been provided for by the text. "Let the Parliament
composed of scholars, frame such laws as are just
and beneficial to the rulers and the ruled."
*Here it must be borne in
mind that those people who say that there were no
ships in ancient times are absolutely in the wrong.
the king as well as his advisers bear in mind that
early marriage must not, be allowed, nor the marriage
of grown up people without mutual consent. Let the
king encourage the practice of Brahmacharya; let
him put a stop to prostitution and the custom of
plurality of wives (as polygamy, etc.) so that both
body and soul may attain perfect strength and power.
For if only mental powers and knowledge be developed,
but not physical strength, one man of great physical
strength may vanquish hundreds of scholars. On the
other hand if physical strength alone be sought
after and not mental, the high duties of Government
can never be rightly discharged.
proper training and requisite knowledge and without
the proper discharge of these duties, there can
be no harmony. All will be discord, division, mutual
disputes, quarrels and feuds that ultimately ruin
all. Let, therefore, both mind and body be developed.
There is nothing more prejudicial t the growth of
physical and mental powers than prostitution and
excessive sexual indulgence.
should, in particular, be physically strong and
possess well developed bodies, because if they be
lascivious, the government of the country is irrevocably
ruined. The proverb "As is the king, so shall the
people be" should never be lost sight of. It, therefore,
behoves the king and other high personages never
to misconduct themselves. Instead, let them always
set a good example to others in the matter of just
and righteous living.
have the duties of Ruler been briefly described.
Those, who want to study them I detail, are referred
to the Vedas, the seventh, eight and ninth chapters
of Manu, the Shukraniti, Vidurpprajaagar, Rajadharma,
an Apatadharma, chapters of Shantiparva of the Mahabharata.
They should perfectly master the science and art
of government, and rule one country or Empire or
the whole earth. Let all undrstand "We are the subjects
of the Lord of the universe - the king of kings.
He is true king and we are all His humble servants,"
(Yajur Veda). May we in this world, through His
mercy, be privileged to occupy kingly and other
high offices and may He make us the means of advancing
His eternal Justice.